Exam Strategy

Disclaimer: This plan is tentative and is thus, subject to the whims of change over the next few days (not likely though).

Selected Texts

  1. “The Dream of the Rood”
  2. Kazuo Ishiguro, The Buried Giant
  3. Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-tale Heart
  4. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper
  5. William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream
  6. Herman Melville, “Bartleby the Scrivener”
  7. Derek Walcott, Dream on Monkey Mountain
  8. Emily Dickinson, “I Felt a Funeral in My Brain,” “The Brain is Wider than the Sky,” “Tell All the Truth but Tell It Slant,” and “Hope Is the Thing with Feathers”
  9. Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man
  10. Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
  11. Virginia Woolf, “The Mark on the Wall”

My list is mainly comprised of texts that I am mostly familiar with and therefore feel capable of writing about. The few texts that I may not be familiar with, are ones that I intend to read or present on (like Monkey Mountain). I chose texts that I will be most comfortable writing about. As for the supplemental readings, I chose some of them based on the class presentations and others on how promising they looked at first skim (I still have some reading to do).

I have coupled the primary texts with the supplementary readings that I hope to use for each. I have not given any explanations for how I will be using each because I am still working that out, but I am pretty set on the pairing.


  • “The Dream of the Rood”- Steven Kruger, from Dreaming in the Middle Ages
  • Emily Dickinson, “I Felt a Funeral in My Brain,” “The Brain is Wider than the Sky,” “Tell All the Truth but Tell It Slant,” and “Hope Is the Thing with Feathers” -Seo-Young Chu, Excerpts from Do Metaphors Dream of Literal Sleep?: A Science Fictional Theory of Representation (considering whether I need to tackle all of the poems or just focus on a few; or does this depend on what my argument will be?)
  • Virginia Woolf, “The Mark on the Wall”- Karen Smyth, “Virginia Woolf’s Elegiac Enterprise”
  • Herman Melville, “Bartleby the Scrivener” -Unreadable Minds and the Captive Reader H. Porter Abbott

Historical Context

  • William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream -Larry Swain, “Exploring the Depth and Beauty of Anglo-Saxon Literature” (interview with James Wiener)
  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper -Jürgen Wolter, “‘The Yellow Wallpaper’: The Ambivalence of Changing Discourses”


  • Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man -W.E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk and/or William Lyne, “The Signifying Modernist: Ralph Ellison and the Limits of Double Consciousness”
  • Edgar Allan Poe, The Tell-tale Heart -Jan Alber, et al, “Unnatural Narratives, Unnatural Narratology: Beyond Mimetic Models”
  • Harriet Jacobs,Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl -Homi K. Bhabha, Introduction to The Location of Culture
  • Kazuo Ishiguro, The Buried Giant -Sebastian Groes, ed., Selected Essays from Memory in the 21st Century: New Critical Perspectives from the Arts, Humanities, and Sciences

Flexibility and Modularity

  • Along with the historical context, The Yellow Wallpaper, has room for being used in theory with Michel Foucault, “Panopticism” from Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. I would consider discussing this idea with “Bartleby” or “The Mark on the Wall”.
  • I could work Derek Walcott’s, Dream on Monkey Mountain, into the genre of play-writing. There is also a possibility to discuss it in terms of dream theory, using Sebastian Groes, ed., Selected Essays from Memory. I have not finished reading this play yet, so these are only assumptions based on what I have already read.

I am sure that there are more texts that have flexibility of use, and I will be giving more thought about this aspect as I continue to prepare for the exam.

Bhabha & Company

For my group’s presentation, I had the task of identifying the thinker or texts that help the writer build his argument. This was an incredibly exhausting task, granted that, Homi Bhabha’s introduction to Location of Culture, was crawling with a large number of sources. My presentation primarily consisted of a lengthy attempt at revealing the instances where Bhabha used other works or thinkers, then I discussed how these works may or may not have helped to further the piece.

However, for this blog, I have opted for a different approach to make the critical context less exhaustive. While Bhabha mentions many references, he mainly focuses on two novels for constructing his argument. The first text he heavily focuses on is Toni Morrison’s, Beloved. He later begins working with Nadine Gordimer’s, My Son’s Story. He specifically discusses the placement of two female characters in these texts.

Bhabha posits that he has, “ended this argument with the woman framed—Gordimer’s Aila—and the woman renamed—Morrison’s Beloved—because in both their houses great world events erupted—slavery and apartheid—and their happening was turned, through that peculiar obscurity of art, into a second coming” (18). This indicates that the ways women function in a domestic space is highly contingent on the state of the government. The idea that these institutions of oppression are turned into a “second coming” was a bit confusing, but I assume it is referring to reconstruction of these worlds in a work of literature (this is something you may find useful or can completely ignore). This quote may be used to discuss womanhood in the political climate of the historical context for certain texts that lack division between the home and state. Regarding this, one may also discuss the stereotypes surrounding the domestic role of women and the role of men in politics. This could help with forming an argument based on male hegemony. A good text for discussing this is Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s, “The Yellow Wallpaper”. While this text does not address post-colonialism or the plight of the black woman, it can provide insight on the role of patriarchy inside and outside of the home.

To further this discussion, you may incorporate Bhabha’s use of the term, “unhomeliness”, which he credits to Henry James’, The Portrait of a Lady. In reference to this term, Bhabha explains that, “The recesses of the domestic space become sites for history’s most intricate invasions. In that displacement, the borders between home and world become confused; and, uncannily, the private and the public become part of each other, forcing upon us a vision that is as divided as it is disorienting” (9). The description of this as an “invasion”, is possibly the most helpful point in Bhabha’s statement. The affairs of the home should be addressed within that realm; however, political policies and public issues somehow find themselves within domestic walls. This is a good platform for discussing how this “invasion” is done and the ways that women are affected by it.

Task List

Professor’s feedback was most helpful for creating this list of tasks. I really have quite a bit to do.

I need to establish my motive (which I’m still figuring out) , reorder paragraphs, connect the ideas in my sources to make points, work on how to analyze sources in a way that is not too repetitive (especially for quotes that support the same claim—figure how they are different), figure out a thesis, work out how I am going to articulate said thesis, investigate more sources such as Seo-Young Chu’s book, look for useful information on drugs that act as brain stimulants or neuro-enhancers, select specific scenes from my primary texts that would be useful to my argument, and figure out how to explain them in a clear and concise manner (so that the readers get it), create a solid intro.

As of now, I really need to think about breaking down and reorienting the placement of everything. However, I may do this after collecting some more information, which may be helpful in working out the structure of my paper.

Feedback Reflection

I am extremely thankful for all the feedback I have received on my project. It is all really constructive and will surely help me with configuring my essay over the break. Everyone seemed to like that I am using the transhumanist angle to assess these shows, which I am thankful for because I was unsure if anyone would think it made sense.

Professor was super encouraging and has suggested that I use specific resources that he has sent me to work with. Lisa has also stressed the importance of data gathering and I agree that I have much more work to do in terms of reading and incorporating sources. I have many resources right now, but also much more to find in order to create a strong argument.

Professor has also pointed out that I need to take my time in explaining and analyzing scenes from my primary sources. Similarly, Sara thinks that I should work on refining my argument by using some very helpful questions which she provided to help me assess different scenes and their representations of consciousness. I will definitely work on slowing down and doing my analyses with precision. This was actually a huge concern for me because I tend to run away from summary, but in this instance, it is necessary in order for readers who have not seen the shows that I am using to understand what I am talking about.

My next step is to really work on the suggestions given by my peers and Professor so that I can come up with a specific thesis. I think that once I know what my specific argument is, then I will be able to argue for it a lot better. For right now, my ideal finished essay is one that will make a unique argument that is both engaging for readers and scholarly. These are the most specific expectations that I can have for right now.

Good Luck with Your Projects & Happy Holidays Everyone!!!

Project Progress



Processing Progress…Please wait…


I’m sorry the file you are searching for cannot be found. (Just kidding! I felt the need for some humor. Forgive me.)

So far, the only progress I’ve made is random writing, which I guess counts for something. I have also made little lists of the things I want to discuss. The most exciting thing so far is that I’m not completely lost in my awesome topic anymore, thanks to the help of Professor and my peers. I have a clearer idea of what I’m doing for the draft. I have also been really considering my justification for using the primary sources that I did, especially because (as pointed out by Sara) there are many other films that do similar things that I will talk about (I think I may be close to an answer though).

I have also progressed in my ideas of how to structure the project. I figured it would be helpful (and kind of cool) to use two or three images from one or both series that I will be discussing to help with reader comprehension. However, this is a blessing and a curse because there are no images online that already capture the scenes I’m using (nobody cares like I do). Thus, arises a new frustration (if I even do this) to go in search of the scenes myself and take screenshots.

To add insult to injury, a new source that I had found to be promising and went to pick up, has mysteriously disappeared from the Queens public library. This is a sad day, but never mind, I shall find something else (I hope).

I am also thankful that what is due now, is just a draft (i.e. not being graded), but I will still do my best on it. I’ve been struggling with my paper sounding to much like a rant about television. I’m working towards making my draft sound more scholarly, but also bearable to read for my peers.

So far, I’ve been using Hayot’s strategy of writing a bit at a time, and as often as possible. Although, I’ve literally been writing—on paper (it helps me think). I also think that Walk’s move of the information on the topic being limited is actually motivating me. I mean this in the least cheesy way. When I think of how little attention my primary sources have been given, it makes me feel as though I’m actually making a contribution to scholarship by pushing through my paper.


*Sorry for all the parentheses. My sleep-deprived inner voice kept surfacing. I literally had to stop myself at a point.

Annotated Bibliography + Ballroom Diagram

Amen, Daniel G. Making a Good Brain Great: The Amen Clinic Program for Achieving and Sustaining Optimal Mental Performance. New York: Three Rivers, 2005. Print.

Amen discusses ways of enhancing brain performativity in various ways that include lifestyle changes. One of his assertions is that there are many advantages for enhancing the brain through supplemental intake. While the supplements that Amen outlines primarily contain natural ingredients, there may still be a possible danger to constantly supplying the body with factory made substances. I will piggyback this idea for now as an alternative to using drugs to enhance the brain, but I may leapfrog later

Besser, Stephan. “From the Neuron to the World and Back: The Poetics of the Neuromolecular Gaze in Bart Koubaa’s Het Gebied Van Nevski and James Cameron’s Avatar.” Journal of Dutch Literaure (n.d.): 43-67. University of Amsterdam. Web.

I am primarily interested in Besser’s idea about the film, Avatar, and it’s depictions of the brain as a network. He discusses a larger scale example of what Limitless and Sherlock does with consciousness. The idea of connections between physical beings on a neuromolecular level may help me determine how this idea can be translated into my primary texts. I hope to use this idea of depicting the brain in film to show how the consciousness is also being depicted. I will piggyback this idea.

Damasio, Antonio R. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York: Pantheon, 2010. Print.

Damasio’s claim of a core self and an autobiographical self asserts that the core self remains the same while the other can be influenced; it permits the existence of a richer form of consciousness.  This concept will help me to explain how Limitless and Sherlock depict autobiographical consciousness through the physical depictions. I will piggyback this idea, but there is also a possibility to leapfrog this idea when it comes to multiple depictions of consciousness.

Dehaene, Stani slas. Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts. NY, NY: Viking, 2014. Print.

Deheane’s theory of conscious access determines what becomes conscious based on what we focus on. He argues that this is a code of consciousness which constitutes a “neuronal workspace” for conscious thought. I will use this idea to aide in assessing Limitless and the way the drug NZT may have an effect on this workspace and bring unfocused thoughts to the forefront of consciousness. I will be primarily piggybacking this idea to help establish a realistic scientific claim for a fictional representation of consciousness.

Dumit, Joseph. Picturing Personhood: Brain Scans and Biomedical Identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2004. Print.

I was not sure how to integrate Dumit’s research on brain imagining technology into my work at first. However, I am going to start by considering how the brain imaging idea translates in the (fictional) realm of consciousness imaging. This is meant to help determine whether an image of consciousness would help us understand the concept and its functions better. I will piggyback all the way.

Sommerhoff, Gerd, and Karl MacDorman. “An Account Of Consciousness In Physical And Functional Terms: A Target For Research In The..” Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science 29.2 (1994): 151. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.

Sommerhoff and MacDorman’s discussion of subliminal awareness, hallucinations, and readiness sensory perception directly relates consciousness to being a product of the brain. I will piggyback this notion to help me explain how the portrayal of consciousness as a physical entity in Limitless allows it to be assumed that the show is linking consciousness to be a product of the brain.

Sotirova, Violeta. Consciousness in Modernist Fiction: A Stylistic Study. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Print.

Sotirova’s book discusses the representation of character consciousness from a dialogue standpoint in modern fiction. I am still waiting to get a copy of this from the library. This source seems to primarily focus on the dialogue between fictional character consciousness and it’s relation to real world dialog. I may piggyback this source or leapfrog depending on how much of it works for what I will be writing about.

Swaab, D. F. We Are Our Brains: A Neurobiography of the Brain, From the Womb to Alzheimer’s. Trans. Jane Hedley-Prole. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2014. Print.

Swaab discusses the disadvantages of drugs. He outlines that the use of drugs they can manipulate and trigger brain performativity and give a temporary effect. However, he strongly argues that these substances may cause lasting permanent damages to the physical brain matter.  I will piggyback this idea in order to analyze the use of drugs by the main characters in my primary TV programs.

Ballroom Diagram



My ballroom diagram has me as the primary MC who is starting the conversation. My primary texts are both very modern and fairly new, therefore, there is very little analytic and scholarly information on the sources. I am using the various scholars depicted in order to show how these scholars will help me analyze the neurological aspects of the texts. Some of the scholars refer to each other in their works. Besser, Sommerhoff and MacDorman refer to Gerald Edelman who is a Darwinian neuroscientist. He discusses neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. He is depicted as a ghost in my diagram because he is not someone I have done much research on yet, but I hope to find some way that he can contribute to my research and insert him in the conversation. Besser also mentions Swaab’s argument about self-determinism in conjunction with Edelman’s Darwinian ideas. I will attempt to utilize the argument of these scholars as well as the arguments they make about each other’s work to analyze my primary texts.


Research Proposal



I intend to construct my research paper on the platform of the American television series, Limitless (2015), and the British drama series, Sherlock (2016), as primary sources. Although both texts are prominent in different genres and for different cultures, they both depict interesting representations of consciousness and the intelligence. Limitless is a television adaptation of the Neil Burger film with the same title. The story follows Bryan Finch, who is a normal member of society, until he takes a neuro-enhancing drug called NZT and begins working with the FBI to solve cases. The BBC series, Sherlock is a contemporary adaptation of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s detective stories. The show follows the self-proclaimed, “high functioning sociopath”, Sherlock Holmes and his associate, Dr. John Watson, as they solve mysterious crimes using the art of deduction. I would like to explore selected episodes of Limitless and the way that it portrays the projections of the main character’s consciousness as a physical manifestation, while on the neuro-drug NZT. Similarly, episode of season 3 has a strong theme of drug usage by the main character, accompanied by physical manifestations of his consciousness in order to solve a crime. I am especially interested in the connection between both main character’s usage of drugs and how that functions as an enabler in the enhancement of their consciousness. Do these shows assume that there is a tangible significance to drug usage and our perception of consciousness? Is there a significance (outside of sheer entertainment) to representing thought as physical? How does this relate to the mind (intangible) vs brain (tangible) argument? What can be learnt about how our consciousness is influenced by others, through the way that the shows portray the physical manifestations, as not only the main character, but other characters as well?

One source that I intend to use to further my research is Stanislas Dehaene’s, Consciousness and the Brain (2010). This source will help me to begin answering the question of external influence on the consciousness as well as understanding the simulation of consciousness separate from the brain. Another source that I am interested using is the journal article “Physical Consciousness Outside the Brain: Parasite Fermion Model for Substance of Consciousness”, by Takashi Taneichi. This source may be helpful in exploring the significance of portraying consciousness as a physical manifestation through its attempt to clarify the origin of conciseness being outside the brain using something called the parasite fermion model. Other sources that I hope to find would be journal articles on existing neuro-enhancers and their current or possible effects on the mind and physical brain. I would also like to find more information about other television programs and films that also follow this model of portraying consciousness.

I have attempted to search for existing scholarly works that discuss my primary sources on the subject of consciousness, however, I was unable to find any. Thus, I may be the first. My motive for writing on this particular subject is in part because I find the idea of physically representing consciousness to be interesting. I am also motivated to find out more on the subject of how we are able to shape and reshape our identity through our impressions of others and the way each show represents this by the main character’s impression of other characters as physical manifestations. We have been in the age of film and television for a while now, and I think that the we (often subconsciously) learn more about ourselves and the state of society through these mediums. I hope to contribute a new perspective to the argument about the separation of consciousness from the body by exploring the very literal way that my primary sources depict this idea.

Sir Gawain in the closet of Knights?


When I first read the kiss scenes between Bertilak it was quite shocking. I did not expect any kind of homoerotic imagery such as provided by the kiss scenes, from a text that was written around the 14th century. Therefore, I appreciated Carolyn Dinshaw’s interpretation in the journal article, “A Kiss Is Just a Kiss: Heterosexuality and Its Consolations in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”, which gave me the opportunity to think more deeply on the subject.  Dinshaw argues that the inclusion of the kiss scene between the two men was a way of reinforcing heteronormativity. The article helped me to understand how important sexuality is for identity during that period. Dinshaw asserts that, “there is good  late medieval evidence that sexual acts were fundamental to an individual subject’s sense of self and location in larger cultural structures (207). Thus, sexual acts helped one to create their identity. Does this then mean that one is without an identity of they do not engage in any sexual activities? I think that it would be more appropriate to consider this “sense of self” to be a sense of the sexual and desiring self. This seems to be about sexual identity.

With the background knowledge that heteronormativity and performance of gender roles were important to the maintenance of the social structures in the medieval era, I found that I do not quite agree with Dinshaw. I think that the text, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, uses the kiss scenes to subtly resist heteronormativity. The encounter between Gawain and the lady seemed to be a Biblical allusion to Joseph and Potiphar’s wife.  In both stories, there is a reversal in the stereotypical gender roles where the lady is doing the chasing and the man is being chased. The story from the Bible results in Joseph fully resisting the seduction of his master’s wife and being thrown into jail. However, in Sir Gawain, the lady who is also married to Bertilak, the “master” of the castle at which Gawain was staying, successfully steals a kiss from him. I think that this parallel is important in the discussion of sexual normativity because it breaks the conventions of a typical lady, who should allow herself to be the damsel that is pursued by the knight.

Another way in which the text may be showing a resistance rather than reinforcement of heteronormativity is through the fact the kisses are passed on more than once. It can be argued that Gawain wanted to restore his masculinity by allowing the lady to attempt to seduce him again. However, given that he is aware that he must give whatever he receives to a man, yet does not refuse the kiss of the lady, indicates that he was not repulsed by the kiss with Bertilak. In fact, Gawain could have found an excuse to not kiss the lady a second or third time, he could have also found a way to receive something else to give to Bertilak, but he did not. There is significance in the repetition of the action as well as the increase in the amount of times the actions is repeated. This also relates to sexual identity because Gawain is resistant of the lady yet willing toward the man, which may indicate that he is discovering his own preferences. This can be read as Gawain’s resistance of the norm.


Read My Mind: Actually Don’t


Savarese and Zunshine argue that theory of mind or mindreading is the involved cognitive adaptation that prompts us to explain observable behavior as caused by unobservable mental states, such as thoughts, feelings, and intentions (21). Savarese and Zunshine make a valid argument that mindreading “limits our perception”, however, it can also allow one to attempt to understand the other. I think that mindreading should be viewed as a way of empathizing and resonating with each other rather than as something that is used to essentialize the other. This is quite evident in Alberto Rios’ short story “The Back of My Own Head in a Crowd”. The main protagonist misses her husband who has somehow disappeared and finds him in the memories they shared. The story is complicated with the multiplicity of the self, which is found in others, including inanimate objects. This deeply represents the ways in which we interact with the world by forming connections between ourselves and the people or things around us. This connects to Theory of mind because in a way, this mental assessing of the other can be viewed as searching for ourselves or our own mentality in them.

It we inspect the way that we assess literature and the relationship of readers to characters and reading the mind of those characters or even the authors themselves, we can gain insight about a text, certain period, or people in doing this. In the case of someone who has a disability within the autism spectrum or otherwise, those who are unable to share their experiences may only be able to understand such people through theory of mind. There is the “dark side” to mindreading but there is also a side that allows us to coexist; it helps us to relate to the other. ‘

That being said, I really am torn because I also agree with the serious danger of essentializing that presents itself as “mindblindness”. This is actually evident in the aftermath of the recent election. Trump is now the president of America and he has put himself in a position to represent many of the things wrong with the world i.e. racism, prejudice, misogyny, bigotry, etc. While these traits may be desirable to many (of course…), the more rational population will likely assume that anyone who supports Trump, possesses or supports at the very least, such qualities as his. This is where tension arises between trying to understand for the sake of the other or for the sake of creating labels. For instance, in “Bartleby”, the Lawyer is very observant of the character, Bartleby, and even praises himself for being so good to someone who is so different. He labels Bartleby by saying, “I think he’s a little deranged” (237). This is a great example of how theory of mind can be misused. The lawyer is not trying to understand Bartleby, but diagnose his difference.

However, it is possible that the dangers of theory of mind or more specifically “mindblindness” can be pacifies by the good it can do in understanding each other.

The Curious Meeting of Three Strangers at a Bus Stop


Michiko Kakutani: (Walks up to a bus stop holding the book Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime by Mark Haddon.)
Greg Olear: Excuse me, have you read that book.
Michiko: Why yes I have. I recommend that you read it too.
Greg: Ha! Unfortunately, I have. That book is utter trash!
Michiko: I beg your pardon? I happen to think that Mark Haddon does a great job in his portrayal of the main protagonist and constructs a plot that we can all learn from.
Greg: You’re clearly delusional lady! My kid has Asperger’s and this book is about the worst thing that can happen for his future. It perpetuates so many negative stereotypes about kids like him. I’ve done my research on this guy and he ain’t no expert. He even says so himself in a blog I read. None of the “aspie” critics think it’s accurate either!
William Schofield: Somebody needs a chill pill. Says under breath.
Greg: Excuse me?! You got something to say pal?
William: Well…um…actually I-I’ve actually read that book as well. And to-uh agree with the lady here, I thought it was pretty interesting.
Greg: Who asked you anyway.
William: Actually, you just did sir.
Greg: Listen, you don’t know what it’s like to be a father who has to not only worry about your kid who has a disorder but also the way people are gonna treat him because of this book.
William: You’re right. I don’t. But I do have Asperger’s syndrome and I think that Haddon’ s portrayals are pretty accurate. Although Haddon only ever mentions Christopher as having “some disability”, I can resonate with the character.
Michiko: I agree with you kid. I don’t think Haddon is claiming to be an expert here, but he’s showing that he sympathizes with the character and this novel may be an attempt to understand the disorder a little better.
William: Exactly.
Greg: Forget you both! No one cares what you two think anyway! My son now has to live with the damage done by Haddon’s book and that’s that. Walks to other side of bus stop.
William: Poor guy. He must be taking the news of his son having Asperger’s pretty badly.
Michiko: Yeah

I especially wanted to write about Greg Olear and William Schofield because they contrasted so well. Olear’s tone made it seem like he was yelling through his entire review and it was clear that he only began to really care about Haddon’s novel after the diagnosis of his son with Asperger’s. Schofield was the perfect contender because he has Asperger’s just like Olear’s son. This contrast really made me think about Murray and how he argues that all autistic people are individuals and therefore experience the disorder differently. While many of the critics that Olear mentions do not think Haddon gives an accurate portrayal of people with Asperger’s, Schofield does. He also does so in a somewhat objective way, by making a comparison specifically about having “some kind” of disability. This shows that Haddon’s novel is subjective and may resonate with some while rebounding off others.